Knitting-Dyeing & Stitching Explained

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Circular knitting or knitting in the round, is a form of knitting that creates a seamless tube. Originally, circular knitting was done using a set of four or five double pointed needles. Later a circular needle was invented; the circular needle looks like two standard knitting needles connected by a cable between them. Machines also do circular knitting; these use individual latch-hook needles to make each stitch in a round frame.

Knitting is one of several ways to turn thread or yarn into cloth (cf weaving, crochet). Unlike woven fabric, knitted fabric consists entirely of parallel courses of yarn. The courses are joined to each other by interlocking loops in which a short loop of one course of yarn is wrapped over the bight of another course. In practice, knitting is usually begun (or "cast on") by forming a base series of twisted loops of yarn on a knitting needle. A second knitting needle is then used to reach through each loop (or stitch) in succession in order to snag a bight of yarn and pull a length back through the loop. This forms a new stitch at the top of the current wale of stitches (or loops). Work can proceed in the round circular knitting or by going back and forth in rows. Knitting can also be done by machines.

Dyeing
Indigo dye is an important dyestuff with a distinctive blue color (see indigo). The natural dye comes from several species of plant, but nearly all indigo produced today is synthetic. Among other uses, it is used in the production of denim cloth for blue jeans.
A mordant is a substance used to set dyes. A mordant is either inherently collodial or produces colloids and can be either acidic or basic.
Mordants include tannic acid, alum, chrome alum, and certain salts of aluminum, chromium, copper, iron, potassium, and tin.

In biology, pigment is any material resulting in colour in plant or animal cells which is the result of selective absorption. Some biological material has so-called structural color, which is the result of selective reflection or iridescene, usually done with multilayer structures. Unlike structural colour, pigment colour is the same for all viewing angles. Nearly all types of cells, such as skin, eyes, fur and hair contain pigment. Butterfly wings typically contain structural colour, although many of them contain pigment as well. Creatures that have deficient pigmentation are called albinos.

Because pigment colour is the result of selective absorption, there is no such thing as white pigment. A white object is simply a diffuse reflecting object which does not contain any pigment.
In the colouring of paint, ink, plastic, fabric and other material, a pigment is a dry colorant, usually an insoluble powder. There are both natural and synthetic pigments, both organic and inorganic ones. Pigments work by selectively absorbing some parts of the visible spectrum (see light) whilst reflecting others.

A distinction is usually made between a pigment, which is insoluble, and a dye, which is either a liquid, or is soluble. There is no well-defined dividing line between pigments and dyes, however, and some colouring agents are used as both pigments and dyes. In some cases, a pigment will be made by precipitating a soluble dye with a metallic salt. The resulting pigment is called a "lake".
Tie-dye is a method of dyeing clothing originally popularized by members of the hippie subculture. Clothes are tied, either with string or rubber bands into some sort of pattern. Then the clothes are dyed, either by submerging them or by squirting dye solution onto them. Where the fabric is tied, some areas do not absorb dye, forming a pattern. This is known as a resist technique (the areas that are tied resist dyeing).

Tyrian purple is a purple dye first made in the ancient city of Tyre. It was made from a secretion of various marine molluscs, such as Murex trunculus and Murex brandaris. The expensive dye was prized by Roman noblemen, who used it to colour ceremonial robes.
Historically, natural dyes were used to color clothing or other textiles, and by the mid-1800’s chemists began producing synthetic substitutes for them. By the early part of this century only a small percentage of textile dyes were extracted from plants. Lately there has been increasing interest in natural dyes, as the public becomes aware of ecological and environmental problems related to the use of synthetic dyes. Use of natural dyes cuts down significantly on the amount of toxic effluent resulting from the synthetic dye process.

Natural dyes generally require a mordant, which are metallic salts of aluminum, iron, chromium, copper and others, for ensuring the reasonable fastness of the color to sunlight and washing. Customers who have become accustomed to the dazzling colors and wash and light fastness of synthetic dyes are hard to convince, as only a few of the natural dyes have good all round fastness
Quality standards for natural dyes vary widely, so it is necessary to first contact an importer to find out what they are looking for. The problem arises with standardization of the colors as no two dye lots are identical. While paint manufacturers might be interested in the uniqueness of each batch of color produced, technicians in the pharmacology, food and textile industry loathe this lack of consistency.
This latter group has attempted to standardize natural dyes by imposing a color index that attempts to classify and name them. Each dye is thus named according to the following pattern:
natural + base color + number

Sewing Defination List
Aida cloth is cloth traditionally used for cross-stitch. It comes in various even sizes, indicating the number of squares per inch.

A bobbin is a spindle or cylinder, with or without flanges, on which wire, yarn, thread or film is wound. Typically found in sewing machines and cameras.

Chain stitch is a stitch in sewing and embroidery. A series of looped stitches that form a chain, it can be used decoratively or constructively. Compare lockstitch.

To hem a piece of cloth, the cut edges are folded up, folded up again, and then sewed down.

The cut edges are thus completely enclosed in cloth, so that they can't ravel.

The lockstitch uses two threads, an upper and a lower. The upper thread runs from a spool kept on a spindle on top of or next to the machine, through a tension mechanism and a retracting arm, and finally through the hole in the needle. The lower thread is wound onto a bobbin, which is inserted into a case in the lower section of the machine. To make one stitch, the machine lowers the needle through the cloth into the lower section, where a hook catches the upper thread at the point just before it goes through the needle. The hook mechanism loops the upper thread entirely around the bobbin case, so that it has made one wrap of the bobbin thread. Then the retracting arm pulls the excess upper thread back to the top of the machine and the feed dogs pull the cloth back one stitch length.

An Overlock-sewing-machine sews and hems seams and cuts of the leftover cloth.

A seam, in sewing, is the line where two or more layers of fabric are held together by thread.

Yarn Definition

Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibers, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, knitting, weaving and ropemaking Yarn can be made from any number of synthetic or natural fibers. Very thin yarn is referred to as thread. Yarns are made up of any number of plys, each ply being a single thread these threads being twisted (plied) together to make the final yarn.
In some cases, thread may be monofilament, in which case it is a single fiber. The only natural fiber that is counted as monofilament is silk.

Yarn is manufactured by either a spinning or air texturizing (commonly referred to as taslanizing) process.

Yarn manufacturing was one of the very first processes that was industrialized.
Yarn used for fabric manufacture is made by spinning short lengths various types of fibers. Synthetic fibers which have high strength, artificial lusture, and fire retardant qualities are blended with natural fibers which have good water absorbance and skin comforting qualities ,in different proportions to manufacture yarn for fabric. The most widely used blends are cotton-polyester and Wool-acrylic fiber blends.

Yarn is usually measured by weight. In the United States, balls of yarn are usually sold in three-ounce, four-ounce, six-ounce, and eight-ounce skeins. In Europe the units used by textile engineers is often tex. This is grams per kilometre. Many other units have been used during the last centuries each industry creating its own for internal purposes and these escaping into the public domain.